Table 1 and 2 shows the variables that significantly correlate, moderate or mediate GRC for men in general and minority men.

Table 1 Correlational, Moderator, and Mediation Variables Related To GRC
Contextual, Demographic, Multicultural Variables Correlated with GRC For Minority Men:
Race, class, ethnicity, age, stage of life, sex (women and transgendered people), socioeconomic status (SES), educational level,  marital status, work roles, nationality, acculturation and assimilation,  racial & ethnic identity, machismo ideology & cabalerismo, cultural values, personal & societal discrimination, states of vulnerability, being violent.
Moderators of GRC for Minority Men:
Less ambivalence & confusion about racial identity, Asian identity, self-esteem, assimilation into the majority culture, traditional African American religious acculturation, Black identity salience, multicultural inclusive racial identity, attitudes toward help seeking, pre-encounter state of racial identity, depression, stress, acculturation, machismo, acculturation, monocultural versus bicultural status, distress, caballerismo, perceived racism, sex typing of self, homonegativity, environmental mastery, purpose in life, internalized heteroesexism
Mediators of GRC for Minority Men:
Racial identity, psychological stress (?) , internalized racism, norms of the dominant white culture, machismo ideology, homonegativity, shame, guilt, heterosexist discrimination, internalized heterosexism, self-esteem, negative affect, social sensitivity, internalized heterosexism, avoidant coping, and multicultural inclusiveness


Table 2.
Moderators Studies On Gender-Role Conflict (GRC) Men For In General
Author GRC as Predictors Moderator Variables
Robison & Brewster (2013) GRC Internalized Heterosexism & GRC
Shek & McEwen (2012) Less RE Less ambivalence & confusion about racial identity and Asian identity
Pierce (2012) GRC Level of support
Amato (2012) GRC Prisoner’s age, violence, religion, family history of crime
Murray & Lewis (2012) GRC Age, muscle, height, and body dissatisfaction
Courtenay & McCreary (2011) RABBM Multiple high risk behavior
Amato & MacDonald GRC Age, drug use, violence, with homeless men
Galligan, Barnett, Brennan, & Israel (2010) GRC Resilience
Liang, Salcedo, & Miller (2010) GRC Machismo, cabalerismo, perceived stress and racism
Graef, Tokar, & Kaut GRC Attitudes toward career counseling stigma, willingness to seek career counseling
Hoyt (2009) GRC Emotional expression, emotional processing, age
Windle & Smith (2009) RE & RABBM Husband’s withdrawal
Blashill & Hughes (2009) GRC Sextyping of self, distress
Wolfram, Mohr, Borchet (2008) GRC Worker dissatisfaction, higher irritation, higher depression & anxiety, expressiveness, instrumentality
Wester, Christiansan, Vogel, & Wei (2007) RABBM ?
Thomas (2005) GRC Psychological Reactance
McCreary, Saucier, & Courtenay (2005) SPC & CBWFR Drive for muscularity
Schwartz, Waldo, Daniel (2005) RE Self-esteem, intimidation, & threats
Robison & Schwartz (2004) White men’s RABBM & SPC Negative attitudes toward African Americans
Ervin (2003) GRC Homonegativity, environmental mastery, purpose in life
Monk & Ricciardelli (2003) RE Alcohol & cannabis use
Bruch (2003) RABBM & RE Shyness, toughness
Cachia (2001) GRC Attachment avoidance
Fragosa & Kashubeck (2000) GRC(?) Depression, stress, machismo
Alexander (1999) RE Satisfaction and feelings of efficacy as parents
Newman (1998) GRC Self-silencing and depression
Lilly (1999) GRC Traditional African American religious acculturation, Black male identity, salience
Friedman (2011) GRC SES unemployed men (N.S.)
Jana-Masri (2011) GRC Religiosity to Islam (N.S.)

See full references here.

Mediator Studies On Gender-Role Conflict (GRC) Men For In General
Authors – Studies Predictors Mediators Outcome Variables
Vogel, Wester, Hammer, & owning-Matibag (2013) RE & RABBM Stigma Willingness to refer a friend or family member
Shepard & Rickards (2012) Drive for Muscularity, GRC GRC
Self-stigma of seeking help, attitudes toward seeking help
Intentions to seek help
Szymanski & Ikizler (2012) RABBM & heterosexist discrimination Internalized Heterosexism Depression
Uy (2011) Muscularity


Drinking to cope Alcohol consumption

Drinking problems

Griffin (2011) Attachment


GRC Sexual compulsivity
Groeschel, Wester, & Sedivy, (2010) Negative alcohol

Related consequences

GRC Attitude toward help seeking
Choi, Kim, Hwang, & Heppner (2010) SPC, RE, RABBM GRC Depression & instrumentality
Wester, Arndt, Sedivy, & Arndt (2010) Greater risk, fewer benefits Emotional depression Stigma associated with counseling
Hoyt (2009) GRC Self & Social Stigma Distress explanation
Park & Seo (2009) GRC Negative affect, social sensitivity Less positive & willingness to seek counseling
Blashill & Vanderwal (2009) GRC Negative affect, social sensitivity Eating disorder symptomology
Houle, Mischard, & Chagnon (2009) GRC Risk factors of help seeking & social support Suicidal behavior
Szymanski & Carr (2008) GRC Self-esteem and avoidant coping Psychological distress
Breiding, Windle, & Smith (2008) GRC Husband’s criticism, wives’ criticism & self criticism Marital adjustment
Varvel (2008) Attitudes toward problem solving GRC Psychological functioning
Wester, Christianson, Vogel, & Wei (2007) RE Social support Psychological support
Wester, Kuo, Vogel (2006) SPC, RE, RABBM Avoidant & engagements coping Psychological stress
Batty (2006) GRC Task coping Therapy preference
Wester, Vogel, Wei, & McLain (2006) GRC Racial identity as internalized racism (self-hatred) Psychological distress
Sipes (2005) Perceived gender role socialization Masculinity
Carter, Williams, & Juby (2005) GRC Racial Identity Severity of problem
Serna (2004) GRC Personality Sexual aggression against women
Breiding (2004) GRC Husband’s observed hostility Wives’ marital adjustment
White (2002) RE & RABBM Multicultural Inclusiveness Attitudes toward help seeking
Hill & Fischer (2001) Masculine Gender Role Components & GRC Entitlements & General Entitlement Rape related variables
Swenson (1998) RE Age Self-disclosure
Tokar & Jome (1998) GRC Career choice traditionality Vocational interests
Covell (1998) GRC Sexist attitudes, age Likelihood to sexually harassment
Bruch, Berko, Haas (1995) Personality Attributes RE Interpersonal competence
Davis (1987) GRC Sex Role Salience ?
Baima (2012) GRC Spiritual well-being Psychological Distress (N.S.)
Tsan, Day, Schwartz, & Kimbrel (2011) Behavioral inhibition, Behavioral activation ? N.S.
Steinfeldt, Rutowski, Vaugh, & Steinfeldt (2011) GRC Moral atmosphere and moral functioning ? N.S.
Land, Rochlen, Vaugh (2011) Maternal bonding GRC, negative mood regulation Adult attachment avoidance,
Faircloth (2011) GRC Demographics (age, time in the job, education, area of work) Job satisfaction to explain sex deference,
Hobza & Rochlen (2009) GRC Self-esteem Drive for muscularity,
Daltry (2009) GRC Women’s distress tolerance Quality of athletic life,
Olsen (2000) GRC Trait anger Anger expression